Allergic reactions Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They can be breathed into the lungs, swallowed, or injected. Considerations: Allergic reactions are common. The immune response that causes an allergic reaction is similar to the response that causes hay fever. Most reactions happen soon after contact with an allergen. Many allergic reactions are mild, while others can be severe and life-threatening.
Amputation - traumatic Loss of a body part Considerations: If an accident or trauma results in complete amputation (the body part is totally severed), the part sometimes can be reattached, especially when proper care is taken of the severed part and stump. In a partial amputation, some soft-tissue connection remains.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Considerations: The knee joint is located where the end of the thigh bone (femur) meets the top of the shin bone (tibia). Four main ligaments connect these two bones: Medial collateral ligament (MCL) runs along the inside of the knee and prevents the knee from bending out.
Bleeding Blood loss; Open injury bleeding Considerations: Get emergency medical help for severe bleeding.
Breathing difficulties - first aid Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid Considerations: Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity such as exercise).
Broken bone Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture Considerations: It is hard to tell a dislocated bone from a broken bone.
Broken or knocked out tooth Teeth - broken; Tooth - knocked out Considerations: A permanent tooth that is knocked out can sometimes be reimplanted. In most cases, only permanent, adult teeth are reimplanted into the mouth. Baby teeth are usually left out. Causes: Tooth accidents are commonly caused by: Accidental falls Sports-related trauma Fighting Car accidents Biting on hard food Symptoms: First Aid: Save any tooth that has been knocked out.
Bruise A bruise is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin. Considerations: There are three types of bruises: Subcutaneous -- beneath the skin Intramuscular -- within the belly of the underlying muscle Periosteal -- bone bruise Bruises can last from days to months, with the bone bruise being the most severe and painful. Causes: Bruises are often caused by falls, sports injuries, car accidents, or blows received by other people or objects.
Burns Second degree burn; First degree burn; Third degree burn Considerations: Before giving first aid, evaluate how extensively burned the person is and try to determine the depth of the most serious part of the burn.
Chemical burn or reaction Burn from chemicals Considerations: Chemical exposure is not always obvious. You should suspect chemical exposure if an otherwise healthy person becomes ill for no apparent reason, particularly if an empty chemical container is found nearby. Exposure to chemicals at work over a long period of time can cause changing symptoms as the chemical builds up in the person's body.